DARPA/ISO Integration and Transition Off-Site Conference
Object Services and Consulting,
21-22 October 1997
The purpose of this two-day meeting was to review DARPA ISO application
programs (JTF, JFACC, ALP, DMIF, BADD, Genoa) looking at their architectures
and how they begin to comply with the emerging AITS architecture framework.
Around 150 DARPA ISO architects and project members participated in the
meeting. All briefings are available on the
web at http://www.les.mil/aitsjpo/darpa_iso_ipt/oct97/index.htm.
My role at the meeting was as one of a small review team reporting
to Dave Signori (Deputy Director of DARPA ISO), who is leading this
architecture integration and technology transfer effort. This is my
trip report, which just consists of meeting notes from Day
One (presentations) and Day Two (breakout sessions
and meeting summary), probably not very coherent
Separate documents contain
Introduction, Dave Signori
This was the second Integration and Transition Off-Site Conference. The
first was in February 1997. A third Integration and Transition Off-Site
conference is planned in April 1998 with an Information Superiority Demonstration
in August 1998.
At this meeting, there will be three working groups:
The central concept of JCS Vision 2010 is information superiority.
Advanced Battlespace Information System (ABIS) is a guiding study on how
to translate this into an evolving system of systems view. The ISO
game plan, that DARPA Director Larry Lynn agreed to a year ago, is to develop
a pilot system, with global information management, integrating a set of
applications including the programs already established and link them into
a common framework, guided by a common architecture. The seed architecture
was JTF's component architecture, generalized. Also, to establish a virtual
collaboratory and integrated demonstration. The transition path is to expand
the Joint Program Office (JPO) which transitions technology from DARPA
Architecture Working Group
Object Base Working Group (Common Schema)
Information Superiority Demo Working Group
FY97 highlights: Improved program definition for BADD, DMIF, DDB (new),
JFACC (July demo), DMIF/BADD (Aug/Sep demo), ALP/Genoa (Sep/Oct demo).
Strategy for integration and transition of components in FY98/99 - form
partnerships so JTF servers are now spread out into other programs. New
commitments to engineering. Working on object-web (they don't mean the
web) and object model. In working groups, we will try to refine the AITS
architecture. Many kinds of products are emerging.
Introduction, Marv Langston, new Director DARPA ISO
Marv Langston is the new director of DARPA ISO. He was chief information
officer for Navy staff.
The goal is to harness information; we are at the beginning of the information
revolution. Marx's material conception said technology of the times drives
the rest of the times. DARPA budget is 70% of DoD Science and Technology
$ so we must be responsible. Charge is to develop a new order of
things. Metcalf said the power of a network is equal to the square of the
power of the information and people connected together. So our applications
cannot be isolated. Langston is behind the notion of an object architecture.
AITS Architecture, Signori, Deputy Director DARPA ISO
Much JCS activity is to flesh out Vision 2010 that DARPA fits into.
Many ACTDs, mainly aimed at battlefield and not logistics transitions.
DMSO has modeling and simulation and DARPA has a lot of the rest of funding.
Went over ABIS capability Framework (at best a 30,000 feet notional architecture).
Grid level supports end to end connectivity and security plus data access.
New ISO initiatives include Command Post of the Future, Dynamic Database,
Integrated Battleforce Management.
Planning more participation in OMG - good. Model for DARPA is components
coming out of programs transitioning from DARPA programs to APII to DII
LES to DII.
Operational architecture - description of teaks and activities, flows
to support military. Technical architecture is minimal sets of rules governing
arrangement, interaction, and interdependence of parts or elements. At
work identifying research holes.
What's different? Virtual teams, better integrated across function,
level of command, time, more agile organizations, better coordination,
explicit management of uncertainty, much more. Signori is a master craftsman
of foils and presentations. Capability levels from brittle to agile with
people operating at many levels.
Want component reuse. Lots of efforts in parallel. Expedite ITO to ISO
transition. Reviewed 89 projects sorted into readiness and investment area.
Mentions Habanero, Berkeley Digital Library, Caubweb, MediaNet, Integrated
Digital Library, built into Mosaic … - being transitioned into JPO environment.
This was a pilot.
Looked at relevance of JTF servers to programs (matrix). Looked at interface
and implementation maturity. Similar picture in data services showing ontologies,
repositories, Infosleuth, …
Lead architects for ALP, …: Steve Milligan, Jay Mork, … slides fly by.
Approach to evolution. Always dealing with heterogeneous info, view
of next few years, (0-2, 3-5, >5 for research) Iterate for stability and
time components. Capitalize on COTS, accommodate Java and DCOM+, other
DARPA projects. Actively influence DoD architecture JTA/COE. Concerns about
scalability of AITS. Agents effort. Talks about product lines and DSSAs.
Cells federated of object web, model, map, plan, situation assessment,
agent applications on assured data floor and adaptive comms. With ops,
Intel, Logistics links connecting the cells. If only foils were architecture
- well, they sort of are.
Architecture key concepts - specialization of services hierarchy, clusters,
DSSA, applications framework, OO, just in time logistics. Shared infrastructure
with programs built on top.
No work yet on: Missing framework for configurable user environments.
Distributed systems management, information logistics.
Implementation guidance: started with DII/COE, added OO, minimum qualifying
tier, higher level tiers. Capability tiers. OS = Solaris and NT, languages
= C++, Ada, Java for user interfaces only [audience thinks this is now
short sited, I agree.]
Challenges and opportunities: HTTP and web browsers, CORBA/ActiveX and
Java, CORBA performance, JTF web server, emerging OMG services, security
definition, mobile agents, 3D visualization and collaboration. Some of
these are not resolved. Real-time need to track updates are 20X faster
than current ORBs.
Covered list of things for architecture working group to talk about.
Interoperable Data Presentation, Todd Carrico, firstname.lastname@example.org
three topics. SPAR, under Tom Garvey. AITS WarPlan kernel of data interoperability.
And Common Object Base.
SPAR is Specifications for Plans, Activities, and processes. DARPA and
Rome. Core group being led by Austin Tate. Specialisms Experts Panel. Formalization
review panel. Not just plan but possible futures. Much past work on generalized
plan representation. Aiming for a reference implementation. Several representations
which are different views of same model including formal English, OO, ontology,
ER and language. Core document and set of representations like KIF, …
AITS WarPlan. Specializes SPAR for Log, Ops, and Intel, which overlap.
Common operational picture is the intersection. Focus is initially on the
set of objects exchanged not all objects until 2001. Wants to put this
picture in the middle and have all other parts connect to it. Need unified
scenario to do good job. ARPI (tech base planning and decision aids) program
provided first cut of this or SPAR.
AITS Common Object Base/Schema/Ontology. Vision is richer representation.
Combination is KBMS, ontology, repository, federated ontology. Java ontology.
Creating central repository. Data Services Vision. Might want to invite
DISA/SHADE folks to ease transitions.
JTF/ATD and AJP/ACTD, Ref Delgado, email@example.com
Described operational puzzle with various components. JTF providing infrastructure.
Single plan representation across echelons and single plan with multiple
versions. Moving to composable object web servers. Corbus web server.
Want to use Naming, Security, a few other services from CORBA. CORBA
extra services: persistence, web, policy, versioning, trigger, replication.
Now moving to Java-Enhanced Data Services. Corblets. Cache manager. Gunning
OKBC (HPKB version of ODBC). Map server moving to JMTK. Supporting IDL
and also C2Fine representations.
Many echelons and applications
JFACC, B. Plebanek
Developing decision maker environment, not just for domain of air ops.
Need common plan representation - we have intel, ops, campaign, mission,
… plans. So JFACC is linking all parts together. OO and web oriented. Moving
away from anchor desks to cross functional planning schemes. Cyclical plans
- 24 release. Inefficient. Should be in a dynamic environment. Give decision
maker max time to evaluate the changes. Instead review multiple options
than specific plans. Using case based reasoning from previous situations.
Karl DeFranco (LOGICON) took over and covered the details. Multi agent
planning. Dynamic adaptive managed workflow. Synchronous and asynchronous
planning. Coalitions. Reducing manpower.
JTF objectives - air and maritime and land objectives - tasks - resources
- situation model - tasked activities and projected activities.
JFACC related programs include ICV, HPKB, I*3, BADD, DMIF, AIM, IO ACTD,
ALP, Brian Sharkey
Logistics covers in-storage, in-process, in-transit, and in-theater. Joint
Logistics Technology Office formed this year to house JL ACTD. Focused
on mature technology. ALP focused on revolutionizing logistics technology
base. Trying to highly automate the process. High detail, continuous plan
generation. Architecture is different from AITS - primarily agent based.
ALP feeds into Joint Logistics ACTD, which feeds into DDJPO, then into
GCCS, a heavily web-based traditional target (no, its not says Janet Putman,
sitting next to me). Tons of org charts. Technical architecture is evolving
in JL ACTD. GCCS provides world wide access to data sources. DISN backbone
government Intranet based on SIPRnet (I thought this was dead). Reliable
communication in remote regions via phones, pagers, … - use phone to NL
query remote DBMS.
Tod Carrico then talked about convergence of ALP Vision and … Want one
architecture where different organizations can have different structures,
assembled into larger organization dynamically. Cluster management. Allocator
plug-in, Task Expander plug-in, Assessor plug-in, ALP Data Management plug
in. Clusters combined to become societies.
Distributed heterogeneous data sources. Very large number of distributed
objects. Society of clusters. Agent based architecture. Targeting level
6 and maybe 7 in DII/COE.
Using Visage for common visualization.
DARPA/DISA Information Superiority Demo, Don Eddington
Integrated Force Management in ISD-98. Functional scope: Genoa, DMIF, Situation
Services, BADD; JTF ATD, Integrated Force Management JFACC-after next,
Focused Logistics via Joint Logistics and Advanced logistics Technology,
Information Assurance IA Services, intrusion detection and coalition release.
Pilot services are early release of not quite hardened technology. Notional
sets of ISD pilot services:
Once these services are on the network, they are there 24 hours a day.
Starting with the first sets of services first - aiming for integrated
demo by August 1997. Data services are available to be used. GCCS mainly
implements deployment. Not sustainment, several other areas. People are
sharing data, visualization, and collaboration. Shows picture with virtual
situation room (collection of virtual rooms).
data and object services via OODBMS, Java ORBs, CORBA ORBs, schema server,
visualization services - collaborative JMTK from BBN map server, Enhanced
Common Operating Picture, 3D display, Visage, video archive
Collaboration services - CVW, Collaborative applications that want to grab
bandwidth, MBONE, COMPASS, PLACEWare, DIS, LKA, MRCI
IDM/DISN LES Services - Infosleuth, News on Demand, Multicast IDM Management,
and QoS Net and Net management
Infosec (security) services - intrusion detection, coalition access, secure
servers, PKI certification management.
Lessons learned: you find out a lot by integrating things, crystallizes
Course of Action Analysis, Dell Lunceford, firstname.lastname@example.org
Looking at first cut at commanders intent for commander in field. Hasty
vs deliberate plans. FM 100 and FM 101-5 (chapter 6) are Army documents
on missions planning.
BADD, Bob Beaton
Profile Editor driven off web that downloads the information management
tools. Policy editor with tailored extensions. Access and Resource policy
management as in comm. bandwidth. Tailored extensions to common infrastructure.
Have detailed APIs. Register products via advertisement editors and gatherers.
Catalog manager and broker. Delivery management. Site management, QoS policies
generated, site manager, transfer planner, communities of interest. Whole
delivery management is out of band. Apps are not information management
aware. Http://220.127.116.11/badd pwd POC: Established a number of liaisons
and determined what's involved for more. Products by FY98 packaged to DII
COE level 5 include Policy Editing Tools, resource management service,
info flow management service, several more. Issue of integration of BADD,
IDM and Comm. Server they are behind on.
Genoa, Brian Sharkey
Program is four months old.
Current chaotic process at NCA level to get relevant data associated
with crises and creation of courses of actions - as quickly as possible.
Need to create corporate memory so lots of information about past situations
is not lost regarding lessons learned.
Process: Query (many unclassified and classified data sources) - Receive
data - prepare data - visualize -analyze - review - assess - generate options
- prepare briefing - decision makers involves collaboration and sharing
information. Using UML.
Tightly coupled with a lot of government agencies.
Showed architecture CrisisBrowse, Visage, Virtual Situation Book, Multimodal
interface, Genoa desktop for configuration, Trigger server, workflow manager,
collaboration server, pedigree server, situation server, web server, logging
server, object management, comm. server for bandwidth, structured argumentation,
evidential reasoning, data server, news on demand, DCOM and CORBA, map
server via JMTK TBD,
Crisis templates. Crisis information packages. Ontology definitions.
Current schema is narrow, needs to be broadened. Will acquire Ontolingua,
Ontotharus, IDL Generator. Will use segments that are appropriate.
Will user data server, trigger server, comm. server, JMTK or some map
server. Provided by Genoa meeting transcription and Summarization, Collaboration
tools, multimodal tookit. PlaceWare is first candidate for collaboration
environment, Java based, server, toolkit, environment, spin off of CVW,
commercial, backing of Sun. They are new and small so Genoa can influence.
Auditorium is a collaborative environment where one speaks to many. Genoa
is web-based - whole demo will be available over the web so use DARPA homepage
as demo environment.
Issues: data server cannot access web based data. Server documentation
is vague and IDL interfaces are not available.
DMIF, Steve Flank
Program is five months old. fusion engines, product finishers for mapping
to end users, encapsulation for legacy fusion engines (like wrapping but
include performance info). Tenney is associated with DMIF. Lots built on
DII COE level 5 segments from Army ASOS program. CORBA is implementation
glue - using CORBA 2.2. C++ preferred, some in Lisp, user interface in
Java. ORDBMS currently Informix Universal Server. All modules delivered
as DII COE segments. Hiding fusion engine implementation language. Using
object-relational, not just object store. Using ISI SIMS. Code built segmented
from the beginning. Incorporating TIPSTER NL, HPKB, STOW. BADD and DDB
integration planned. Tactical Terrain Analyzer - reached agreement to use
this. DMIF is architecture enthusiastic. Future products: fusion management,
inference model server, pedigree server (software tag comprising time,
source, quality, process history). Tech transition cost 8 months and countless
messages to receive feedback on how to be compliant. So its hard to get
feedback from JPO. Cannot use Dataserver, doesn't use OQL, doesn't tap
into Intel side or do schema translation. Similar with access to model
server. Concept to query mapping. Issue is real-time performance issues
for a Real-time CORBA.
Signori Closing Remarks for Day One
People have made progress on architecture since the February Off-Site meeting.
Described logistics for Day Two breakouts.
Architecture Working Group
About 50 people participated in this morning's session.
Mid-Term Architecture, Rick Hayes-Roth, Teknowledge
Holes - see Rick's foils
A critical thing Rick is trying to do is mapping foils to a consistent
architecture where foils normally are not mapped by more than words.
configurable user environments - Genoa is addressing this
exemplary applications, e.g., killer apps
distributed systems management
Architecture made from components reduces useless diversity that does
not add value. Rick has a handout and AITS Reference Architecture paper
that needs to be reviewed.
Ideal architecture is complete, consistent, correct, and current (4Cs)
- but we are almost always out of 4C due to resource limitations so we
need to manage. Global information base and world model composed of enclaves
of function composed of people and software including agents arranged in
cross functional hierarchies. DSSAs for appropriate product lines
Near-Term Architecture, John McKim
This is the 0-3 year architecture.
Areas of importance: data services, management services, …
ORBs Orbix, Visigenics, TAO, JavaSoft's RMI IIOP free ORB, Orbix ActiveX
Bridge - multithreaded ORB and IIOP.
Too much emphasis on Publish and Subscribe as a mediator mechanism.
Lots of busy slides as mapping of rubber hits road. Trick is now whole
systems show up in little boxes.
They ask for updates. Recommend wider use of Java than UI.
No notes on this. Was this related to Rich Ivanetich's High Level
Functional/Operational Architecture, Stein
Generic Functiona/Operational Architecture. Matching Generic C2 functions
and new operational concepts like ABIS, JV 2010, program vision statements.
What's different, measures of merit, create overarching strategy.
Tactical Communications Architecture, D. White
Most end users are wireless and have strong constraints on them, lightweight.
Want more mobility, have movable capability but takes long setup. Why not
a commercial solution? No protection against jamming. UAVs/global hawks
can provide warfighter's Internet elements. Single beam covers 300km2.
CAN = air comm. nodes in planes. Expect 10 millisecond delays on the satellite
or plane-based systems. Many intermittent users. Recommends minimizing
putting a lot in the field. The problem is uplink limited. Look at
Signori outbrief on Architecture Working Group
We reviewed mid-term and near-term architectures. Six holes identified,
including one called Killer Apps, a message to the program but not regarding
the architecture. Genoa is providing user configurable architecture so
start with that.
Potential Implementation Guidance: Java-based servers, COTS licensing footprint,
use Lisp, address www, host on NT, need ORDBMS, DCOM, require rationale
for out-of-compliance approaches.
HML = # of votes for high, medium and low
455 Configurable Arch
176 Info Logistics
267 Exemplary Apps
861 Distributed system management
525 Distributed OO system development methods and tools
255 Availability excluding IA program, focus on denial of service
Commercial communications not jam resistant. Application design and
database locations need to consider communications latency and bandwidth.
Other changes coming
Rapid commercial development of middleware continues (info bus, ORB vendors,
network management tools) so avoid over-commitments.
AITS RA needs to begin to encourage design of capabilities for rapid-on-the-fly
evolution (to support unforeseen additional functional requirements that
arise during force deployment - i.e new kinds of distributed data)
need focused deliberate participation in OMG, W3C as well as other open
while we need a richer view of architecture to deal with heterogeneity,
at the same time we need simpler ways to explain it. Decide on key themes.
Reuse portrays certain issues, tie together heterogeneity, evolution view,
… manage complexity.
Engineering Board for system view
Inclusion of sensors and exploitation in the architecture
meet with PMs individually for additional feedback
architecture compliance schedule
Shared Object Base (Schema) Working Group
They identified a bunch of areas related to the ISD 98 demo and which programs
are working on that topic, then an editor (person) to define the ontology
for that area. E.g., constraints, collaboration, security, workflow, blue_order_of_battle,
pedigree, terrain, visualization, space, time weather, event, … then decided
mechanism to capture scheme - Java, c++, UML, ODF, Rose, IDL, Loom, ODI,
RMI, agent, due to language, representation, case tool, ontology, db vendor,
transaction mechanism, comments, … ics.les.mil u:C3Ischema p: … email@example.com.
Telcon 7Nov97. Confusion of terms schema, ontology, model, knowledgebase,
… Bill Fabian is leading this. Others: Glen Tarbox, Rob Peace, Jon Weiss,
Adam Pease, Todd Carrico.
Integrated S Demo ISD 98 - Demo and Transition Working Group
Taking a functional thread approach. Identified data sources (e.g., MIDB,
GSORTS, JTAV, JPAV). Services delivery schedule. Did surface analysis of
which functions and from which groups.
Issues: adequate funding, come as you are, schema free, multilevel secure,
component available ASAP, refine schedule, validate OPS threads against
JWID, PMs assign AOs to ISD 98 project.
Final Comments, Marv Langston
Thank you for coming.
Plans to chair the system engineering board himself. Focus groups will
have start and stop mechanism. The trick is to balance continuously between
building a big system versus making componentwise progress.
Tack down names, dates, and actions associated with progress within
two weeks. Demo is good idea, story line or logic flow is good idea. Our
business is information or to inform those who need to make decisions.
Our job is to make big changes in the way we do business.
Excuses for failures in past are gone due to single funding source,